Urological cancers include cancers of the bladder and kidney, as well as gender-specific cancers such as prostate, penile and testicular cancer.

Male-specific cancers

  • Prostate cancer – this is cancer of the prostate gland, which is located between the bladder and the penis. The prostate gland is responsible for producing prostate fluid, a part of semen. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer diagnosed in men.
  • Penile cancer – cancer of the penis is commonly found on the skin or within the tissues of the foreskin or the glans (head) of the penis.
  • Testicular cancer – this type of cancer can develop in one or both testicles.
  • Gender-neutral cancers
  • Bladder cancer – this type of cancer is commonly developed in the cells which line the bladder.
  • Kidney cancer – renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer.
  • Adrenal cancer – cancer can also develop in the adrenal glands, which sit on top of the kidneys.

Through screening, many urological cancers may be diagnosed early and treated. While the signs and symptoms of urological cancers may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer, the following symptoms are common:

If you are experiencing these symptoms, you should see your doctor screen for urological cancers.

How are these types of cancer diagnosed?

If you are referred to Dr Ridgard, he may suggest screening and run a few tests.

When diagnosing urological cancers, the following may be done to obtain an accurate diagnosis:

  • A physical examination (for prostate cancer, this may involve a digital rectal exam (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test)
  • Blood tests for tumour markers.
  • Urine tests for urine cultures and cytology
  • An ultrasound of the bladder, kidney, prostate, testicles or penis
  • Computerised tomography scan (CT scan)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Positron emission tomography scan (PET scan)
  • A biopsy of the specific organ may also be necessary.
  • For suspected kidney cancer, an intravenous pyelogram (IVP) or intravenous urogram (IVU) and retrograde pyelogram may be done.
  • Those diagnosed with urological cancer will receive personalised treatment tailored to the type and stage of cancer Treatment will combine the skills and expertise of various medical specialists, including an oncologist, radiation therapist and possibly a nephrologist.

What are the treatments for urological cancers?
Treatment of cancers of the bladder, kidney, prostate, testicles and penis will be individualised as it will depend on the type, size and stage of cancer. Treatment of various urological cancers may involve chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery or a combination of these methods.

As your urologist, Dr Ridgard performs surgery as a treatment for various urologic cancers. Beyond incisional and excisional biopsies, for kidney tumours, surgery may involve a partial & radical nephrectomy. A radical cystectomy or transurethral resection of a bladder tumour (TURBT) may be done for bladder cancer, and radical prostatectomy & radiotherapy have proven effective in the treatment of prostate cancer. Dr Ridgard is also capable of performing a penectomy for penile cancer.


When is bladder cancer detected?

Bladder cancer is frequently detected early because it creates blood in the urine, or other urinary symptoms prompt a person to seek medical attention. In most cases, haematuria (blood in the urine) is the initial sign of bladder cancer.

Can urethral cancer be cured?

Chemotherapy is frequently used to treat urethral cancer that has progressed to other regions of the body. Surgery to remove the tumour may be used to treat recurring urethral cancer. Lymph nodes in the surrounding area are sometimes removed as well (lymph node dissection).

What does a urethral cyst look like?

The urethral outflow is narrowed by a glistening, tight, bulging yellowish-white mass known as a paraurethral cyst. A lump that may be felt is one of the most common symptoms.